Endourology is the branch of urology that deals with minimally invasive surgical procedures. As opposed to open surgery, endourology is performed using small cameras and instruments inserted into the urinary tract. Traditionally, transurethral surgery has been the cornerstone of endourology.

Via the urethra, the complete urinary tract can be reached upto the kidneys, enabling prostate surgery, surgery of tumors of the urothelium, stone surgery, urethral and ureteral procedures. The latest addition to endoscopic surgery is the flexiureteroscope and laser to tackle renal stones through the lower urinary tract.