Urologic oncology concerns the surgical treatment of malignant genitourinary diseases such as cancer of the prostate, adrenal glands, bladder, kidneys, ureters, testicles and penis. Prostate cancer occurs when cells in the prostate gland grow out of control.
There are often no early prostate cancer symptoms, but some men have obstructive or irritative voiding symptoms and discomfort. Prostate cancer treatment options are surgery, chemotherapy, cryotherapy, hormonal therapy, and/or radiation. Renal tumours are commonly detected incidentally. Some people may have symptoms such as pain or hematuria. They usually have good prognosis if identified early and is mainly treated by nephrectomy. Bladder tumours are very common among smokers, may present with urinary symptoms or hematuria.